Process theories are on the outdoors influences or behaviors that individuals choose to meet their needs. London: SAGE Publications, Ltd. Content theories are more useful to create a detailed picture of work motivation because they regard motivation in more general terms. People do better when they get feedback on how well they are progressing toward their goals because feedback helps to identify discrepancies between what they have done and what they want to do; that is , feedback acts to guide behavior. Scholars There are three main theory categories, namely content theories, process theories and contemporary theorie… We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Learning is a social process and we learn through interaction with others in our day to day life. Alderfer also deals with frustration – regression. Relatedness- Similar to - Maslow’s Social need and external component of esteem need. Higher your self-efficacy, the more confidence you have in your ability to succeed in a task and respond to negative feedback with increased effort and motivation. Process theories of motivation (also referred to as cognitive theories) focus on how behavior change occurs, or how a person comes to act in a different way. These external or outside impacts are normally available to supervisors. Herzberg argued that there are two factors which are essential in the … Process theories on the other hand stress the difference in people’s needs and focuses on the cognitive processes. Maslow, Alderfer, Herzberg and McClelland studied motivation from a “content” perspective. Aswathappa (2005) claims that content theories are very useful if an … Content theories of motivation often describe a system of needs that motivate peoples actions. Content theories deal with the needs of the people that direct their behavior. Remember. I.e., a higher order need is frustrated, an individual then seeks to increase satisfaction of a lower – order need. They explain how people go about satisfying their needs. The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. The main difference between content and process theories is that content theory focuses on individual needs, while process theory focuses on behavior. P2 Evaluate how content and process theories of motivation, and motivational techniques, enable effective achievement of goals in an organizational context Content Vs Process Theories of Motivation The primary focus of the content theory lies in the factors that are present within a person who has the ability to energize, direct, sustain or stop behavior. In 1962, behavioral psychologist John Stacey Adams developed his equity theory of motivation. This is just a sample. Maintaining this equity, said Adams, is based on the ratio of inputs — the contributions the employee makes to an organization — to the outcomes that result from these contributions. Put simply, this is all about how people's needs influence and drive their behaviour. We can also have process theories, which are concerned with the thought processes that influence our behaviour. Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. what motivates them). It is the ‘energy’ -- that gives you the strength to get up and keep going - even when things are not going your way. Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, a motivation theory that was developed by Abraham Maslow in 1943. In all enterprises whether private or state owned, motivation plays a key role in driving employees towards achieving their goals, organizational goals and to a certain extent the dreams of their nations. Motivation theories are classified as either content or process theories. Punishment - is an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a behaviour recurring. The content theories deal with “what” motivates people, whereas the process theories deal with, “How” motivation occurs. Additional insight into factors that influence employees' job satisfaction is also provided by the content theories of motivation. There are many theories of motivation, and they mostly give a relation or influence the outcomes of employee job satisfaction. Self-Efficacy Theory - (also known as social cognitive theory or social learning theory). It can Human Resource and Personnel Management. Have to be controlled, forced, and threatened to deliver what's needed. Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory. Motivation theories have been classified into process theory and content theory in the literature. According to this view, management must actively intervene to get things done. Process theories deal with how an entity changes and developed. Challenging goals help to get our attention and tend to help us focus. In the field of organizational behavioral studies, there are two different categories called content theories (also known as need theory) and process theories. Prior to 1960, theories of learning were heavily influenced by behaviorist and. Content theory is a subset of motivational theories that try to define what motivates people. Social Needs: Generate a feeling of acceptance, belonging by reinforcing team dynamics. Most research has focused on pay, but employees seem to look for equity in the distribution of other rewards. Instrumentality - is the association between first-level outcomes and second-level outcomes. ", As lower needs are fulfilled there is a tendency for other, higher needs to emerge.”. Roland Farther and the End of the Nineteenth Century Roland Farther was a French philosopher, linguistic, critic and theorist. These theories provide insight into what motivates people to act a certain way in a particular setting and are popular in business management. Expresses that individuals’ perceptions on how they are being treated by the organization comparing to other employees in the similar organizational level. A3 Compare two theories of first/second language acquisition. Process Theories deal with the “process” of motivation and is concerned with “how” motivation occurs. There are four types of reinforcement that can result from behaviour .i.e. To be effective, a company must learn to motivate its employees to efficiently and effectively meet the goals of the organization. “More difficult the goal, higher the level of performance” because: When goals are difficult, people persist in trying to attain them. It assumes that workers: Take responsibility and are motivated to fulfill the goals they are given. Process theories of motivation. To use an analogy, Jex (2002) described that process theories have allowed human resource managers to put work motivation under a microscope. 2) Adam’s Equity Process Theory of Motivation: This process theory of motivation in Psychology, focuses on the exchange relationships of effort and reward. the process theories of motivation focus on how motivated behavior occurs. The main content theories are: Maslow ’ s needs hierarchy, Alderfer’s ERG theory, McClelland’s achievement motivation and Herzberg’s two-factor theory. Introduction There are many theories in the field of criminology that seek to explain the reasons behind why people commit crimes. An example of the content method to motivation is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs which has five level of needs. on, Content and Process Theories of Motivation. Describe a content theory of motivation, and compare and contrast the main content theories of motivation: manifest needs theory, learned needs theory, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs, Alderfer’s ERG theory, Herzberg’s motivator-hygiene theory, and self-determination theory. There are two main types of motivation theory: content and process. Ex: Classroom teachers often use this technique when they ignore students who are “acting out” to get attention. A Discourse Theory of Citizenship This article discusses the concept of citizenship and how citizenship as a form of public engagement is crucial to democracy as a whole. Goals tell an employee what needs to be done and how much effort will need to be extended. Herzberg’s Motivation Hygiene Theory: The psychologist Frederick Herzberg extended the work of … These motivating issues are concerned with identifying people’s needs and their relative strengths, and the goals they pursue in order to satisfy these needs. It assumes that employees are happy to work, are self-motivated and creative, and enjoy working with greater responsibility. Start studying Content and Process Theories of Motivation. Desire to excel and accomplish something difficult. (2) Vroom's Valence / Expectancy / VIE Theory. Jex, S. (2002). PhDessay is an educational resource where over 1,000,000 free essays are collected. Both these theories are linked with motivation. According to Edwin Locke, intentions to work toward a goal are a major source of work motivation. A theory that says that specific and difficult goals with feedback, lead to higher performance. (2018, Jan 11). While the content theories are concerned with the factors that motivate the worker (i.e., personal factors, such as individual needs, or organizational factors, such as the task assignment and rewards), they do not explain how individuals choose one behavior from the several open to them. Difficult goals energize us because we have to work harder to attain them. Content theories of motivation (also referred to as needs theories) focus on the needs that motivate behavior. A major weakness in content theories of motivation is their culture bias. Desire to influence, coach, teach, or encourage others to achieve. Don’t miss a chance to chat with experts. Physiological needs: The need for food, shelter, and clothing. Historically, equity theory focused on distributive justice. The theories based on this subject can be contrasting and are categorized into two types: content and process theories. Motivation is the ‘characteristic’ -- that helps you achieve your goal. There is less emphasis on the specific factors (or content) that causes behavior. Managers should consider openly sharing information on how allocation decisions are made, following consistent and unbiased procedures. Refers to an individual’s belief that he/she is capable of performing a task. Content Theories deal with “what” motivates people and it is concerned with individual needs and goals. Adams’ Equity theory. In particular, Bandura`s insistence that. This style of management assumes that workers: X-Type organizations tend to be top heavy, with managers and supervisors required at every step to control workers. Difference between content theory and process theory is that, content theory emphasizes on the reasons for changing the human needs frequently while process theory focuses on the psychological processes which affect motivation, with regard to the expectations, goals, and perceptions of equity. Two such theories can be identified: Expectancy theory; Equity theory; Expectancy theory: Victor Vroom. This technique should only be used when the supervisor perceives the behaviour --- as temporary, not typical, and not serious. Get Your Custom Essay They attempt to explain those specific issues, which actually motivate the individual at work. While process theories of motivation attempt to explain how and why our motivations affect our behaviors, content theories of motivation attempt to define what those motives or needs are. Process theories are concerned with “how” motivation occurs, and what kind of process can influence our motivation. Process theories of motivation are about a cognitive rational process and concentrate on the psychological and behavioural processes that motivate an individual. Needs reflect either physiological or psychological deficiencies. This is the most widely known theory of motivation and washypothesised by American psychologist Abraham Maslow in the 1940sand 1950s. The Process Theories of Motivation. Desire to spend time in social relationships and activities. Bandura and his colleagues take the position that personality is acquired, or learned behavior. Conversely, a satisfied need does not motivate. Also read about "Contemporary theory of management", Compared to other theories of motivation, the primary advantage of process theories is that they provide a more detailed view of the mechanisms underlying motivation. They are concerned with types of incentives that drive people to attain need fulfillment. Difficult goals lead us to discover strategies that help us to perform the job or task more efficiently. As an example, in some cultures, social needs are regarded higher than any others. Motivation is influenced significantly by others’ rewards as well as by one’s own rewards. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Company, Limited. Retrieved from https://phdessay.com/content-and-process-theories-of-motivation/. Process / Cognitive Theories of Motivation (1) Reinforcement theory Argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated… With the intention of increasing the probability that the desired behaviour will be repeated. Content and Process Theories of Motivation Student’s Name Institution Content and Process Theories of Motivation Introduction Motivation is the force behind all human actions and is a vital component of management at the workplace. Maslow’s hierarchy makes sense but little evidence supports its strict hierarchy. A need to accomplish and demonstrate competence or mastery. This also increases the danger that such theories will be perceived as inaccessible to human resources managers in organizations. be argued that Maslow's theory is Western-oriented, as self-actualization is an individualized, Western concept, not necessarily prevalent in other cultures. The work motivation theories can be broadly classified as content theories and process theories. Self-Actualization: Offer challenging and meaningful work assignments which enable innovation, creativity, and progress according to long-term goals. Process theories of motivation try to explain why behaviors are initiated. A need for control over one’s own work or the work of others. Intrinsic desire for personal development. can use them for free to gain inspiration and new creative ideas for their writing assignments. It is the ‘drive’ -- that pushes you to work hard. The content theories are concerned with identifying the needs that people have and how needs are prioritized. Consider work as a natural part of life and solve work problems imaginatively. Argues that the behaviour that results in rewarding consequences is likely to be repeated. Need to be supervised at every step, with controls put in place. Let Professional Writer Help You, 6000 Fairview Road, SouthPark Towers, Suite 1200, Charlotte, NC 28210, USA. As we have previously discussed, reward is one of the key elements for a person’s motivation, however, there too is a catch. LinkedIn recommends the new browser from Microsoft. You can get your While on the other hand, a content theory define motivation in terms of need satisfaction, e.g. Indicates that one’s level of motivation depends on: In the case of employees feeling that they get the value from business organizations and they put higher effort of work effort. Maslow put forward the idea that there existed ahierarchy of needs consisting of five levels in the hierarchy.These needs progressed from lower order needs through to higherlevel needs. Adam's theory posits that employees are motivated by fair treatment, which will in turn motivate them to treat fairly others within the workplace. Need to be enticed to produce results; otherwise they have no ambition or incentive to work. Content theories of motivation are one of the types of motivation theory. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, Your Deadline is Too Short? If an employee does not engage in improper behaviour, he or she will not experience the consequence. The basic premise of the theory is that we all have these fivelevels of needs and that starting at the lowest lev… In sum, content theories attempt to determine the specific needs that motivate individuals, while the process theories seek to analyze, how individual behavior is initiated, sustained and halted. Ex: a pay raise or promotion, is provided as a reward for positive behaviour. Expectancy - is a relationship between a chosen course of action and its predicted outcome. In this section, we will look at the four content theories of motivation that dominate organizational thinking today Maslows theory: According to Maslow, human needs from hierarchy, starting at the bottom with the physiological needs and reaching to the highest needs of self actualization. Desire for maintaining social and interpersonal relationships. Existence – Similar to - Maslow’s Physiological and safety needs, Needs satisfied by factors such as food, air, water, pay, and working conditions. Also read Motivational Approach to Work Design. Why is it important to understand the differences? Despite the value of understanding the processes underlying work motivation, one might ask whether some cognitive process theories have reduced motivation to such micro level that it is counterproductive. Avoidance - is an attempt to show an employee what the consequences of improper behaviour will be. Process vs. Need-Based Theories of Motivation. There is little delegation of authority and control remains firmly centralized. Content theories assume that everyone possesses a common set of needs and looks at what motivates people at work. Know your Payslip (Compensation Management -…, Sometimes some lessons remain largely unknown, An Interesting Example of Pricing Strategy -…. Need Based:-reflect a content perspective-try to list specific things that motivate behavior Process … Process theories look at the psychological and behavioral processes that affect and individual’s motivation. Explain the difference between content theories of motivation and process theories of motivation. Valence - The feeling about specific outcomes is termed valence. Aswathappa, K. (2005). Process theories of motivation try to explain why behaviors are initiated. Extinction - is basically ignoring the behaviour of a subordinate. As of July 1, LinkedIn will no longer support the Internet Explorer 11 browser. There are four major process theories: (1) operant … Safety Needs: Provide a working environment which is safe, relative job security, and freedom from threats. Esteem Motivators: Recognize achievements, assign important projects, and provide status to make employees feel valued and appreciated. This effort when complemented by – Appropriate organizational support and individual abilities --- result in good performance. These theories focus on the mechanism by which we choose a target, and the effort that we exert to “hit” the target. An ‘activated state’ -- within a person -- that leads to -- goal directed behaviour. Process theories are also more obviously compatible with the view that people can choose, and act accordingly (Maclagan, 1998). But increasingly equity is thought of from the standpoint of organizational justice. Providing either positive or negative reinforcement. Content models of motivation focus on what people need in their lives (i.e. Individual’s goal directed effort depends on: Goal difficulty, specificity, acceptance and commitment -- combine. There is no universally accepted theory of motivation. Albert Bandura`s social learning theory places learning in a social context. Content theories address what factors motivate people whereas the process theories address how the people are motivated. People prefer certain outcomes from their behaviour to others. Process Theories of Motivation. Content theories: These theories look for the factors inside people that cause, sustain or stop behavior. Frederick Herzberg performed studies to determine which factors in an employee's work environment caused satisfaction or dissatisfaction. Positive reinforcement - Rewards desirable behaviour. He was also the first begins systematically to think through the. Management and Morality. The attractiveness of the rewards sought and. A need for love, belonging and relatedness. Whereas behaviour that results in punishing consequences is less likely to be repeated. The process by which humans acquire the capacity to distinguish properly as well as produce and use words to understand and communicate. Little evidence suggests that people satisfy exclusively one motivating need at a time. Thus, theories of motivation can be broadly classified as: Strength of Content Theories. These theories primarily fall into two categories. Explain, in your own words (using citations), why motivation is suggested to affect individual performance and organizational outcomes. Research has challenged the order imposed by Maslow’s pyramid. Content theories focus on what motivates … The content approach focuses on the assumption that individuals are motivated by the desire to satisfy their inner needs. Describe the process theories of motivation, and compare and contrast the main process theories of motivation: operant conditioning theory, equity theory, goal theory, and expectancy theory. https://phdessay.com/content-and-process-theories-of-motivation/, Compare Two Theories of First/Second Language Acquisition. custom paper from our expert writers, Content and Process Theories of Motivation. Seek and accept responsibility and do not need much direction. Rather than simply knowing that an employee will work hard to fulfill esteem need, process theories help managers to understand the choices and decisions that employees make during this process. Aswathappa (2005) claims that content theories are very useful if an organization wants to understand what individuals’ particular needs are, and thus provide opportunities (rewards) to satisfy those needs so that individuals are motivated to join, work hard for, and remain with the organization. Thus, process theories have most definitely enhanced managers’ understanding of work motivation. Such fine-grained analyses have the feel of being scientifically rigorous and objective, but it may be unrealistic to think that managers can understand something as complex as human motivation in detail. Summary by The … Organizational Psychology. Mainly focuses on the internal factors that energize and direct human behavior, We each have a hierarchy of needs that ranges from "lower" to "higher. They are the process theories and content theories. This expounds a participative style of management that is de-centralized. 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